RV Electricity – What’s up with upside-down outlets?

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By Mike Sokol

Dear Mike,
I’ve encountered quite a few 15-amp outlets that were “upside down” with the ground at the top instead of the bottom. And it seems like this same upside-down orientation is what’s needed to plug in my shore power plug without it sticking up in the air. So is there a right or wrong way for outlets to be installed in your home? And is there a right or wrong way for pedestals to be installed at a campground? —Dizzy in Denver

Dear Dizzy,
To discuss this properly we first have to get in the groove with Diana Ross singing Upside Down. All righty, everyone got your beats happening? Then here we go.

First of all let’s go over what the NFPA-70 National Electrical Code has to say about which way the 15- or 20-amp (Edison) outlet should be installed in your home. And guess what? They say NOTHING! That is, there’s no official code describing orientation of ground up or ground down in a home receptacle (outlet). Nada! Zip! Nanimonai!

Here’s what it looks like. On the left side of the picture we have what I’ll call the original USA orientation with the ground at the bottom, which for decades was accepted as the normal way we all installed electrical outlets. But on the right we have what’s commonly referred to as “California Code” with the ground pin at the top.

So what exactly is “California Code” and why did it happen? While this is steeped in lore, the story goes that a loose metal cover plate in a hospital fell down over the partially unplugged extension cord and shorted out the hot and neutral contacts. Something really bad happened (I’m not sure what) but it resulted in the California electrical inspectors requiring hospitals to flip the outlets so the ground pin is at the top. That way if a metal cover plate ever falls into the gap from a partially unplugged power cord, it will harmlessly ground itself, rather than shorting the hot and ground which results in the heart-lung machine (or whatever) shutting off.

I’m not making this up: It’s the generally accepted theory as to why this happened. But the California/Hospital code is a real thing, and now you’ll find that many states have adopted California Code for hospital, hotels and residential code. Yes, they can do that. Your state probably doesn’t care either way, but you’ll find that many electricians are simply installing all 15- and 20-amp outlets “ground up” since this is how many hotels are installing them.

But which way do you want 30- and 50-amp outlets oriented in a campground – with the ground up or ground down? Well, code does suggest that ground up is the proper orientation simply because just about every surge protector, shore power cord, and dog-bone adapter has the ground pin at the top. If you orient the outlet with the ground at the bottom, the plug won’t hang properly straight down, sometimes pulling itself out of the outlet. I’ve even found a few campsites with the outlet turned sideways, and that’s nearly as bad.

Nope, every campground pedestal outlet should be installed with the ground at the top, NOT the bottom. If you find one with the ground at the bottom then tell them to fix it or you’re not paying for the campsite.

Let’s play safe out there….

 

Mike Sokol is an electrical and professional sound expert with 40+ years in the industry. His excellent book RV Electrical Safety is available at Amazon.com. For more info on Mike’s qualifications as an electrical expert, click here.

##RVT881


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Sharon B
Sharon B

I have a fireman friend who helped me put in a new GFCI socket on my kitchen wall in my house. He installed it in upside down. I question him on this. He told me that was the safest way to install this socket. OK I agreed with him. However, at a campground where most are right side up these upside-down sockets will make me crazy when I have to put my Progressive EMS plugged in upsidedown position. I will have problems reading the display upside-down and also have an issue with securing this box. And it may not even… Read more »

Mike Sokol

I don’t know of any “flipper” adapters that will invert an upside down outlet, but it should be possible to build. However, any length of wire might place the surge protector down on the ground, which is also bad. I just looked at my Surge Guard protectors and they have a notice on the side that shows one-way UP only. That’s so rainwater doesn’t drain down into the electronics which is REALLY bad. Much more to think about since I didn’t realize just how many parks had their pedestal outlets the wrong way up.

Steve
Steve

Just ran into a “flipped” 30 amp receptacle at a KOA in Davie, FL. When I pointed it out to management she said it’s a code requirement and all rv parks are supposed to be that way. It’s impossible to argue with the ignorant so I just used the 50 amp with an adaptor.

Mike Sokol
Mike Sokol

I would say that 99.99% of people (probably more) have never looked at an electrical code book, so quoting code without reading it is highly suspect. While it costs $90 for a soft cover version of the NFPA 70, 1192 and 1194 code books, you can read all of them online for free at their website.

Chuck Woodbury

Steve, please email me with the name and address of the park. We’ll put the Stray Patrol on it right away and get that pedestal fixed so no one gets hurt. chuck@rvtravel.com .

Lee
Lee

It is truly a wonder we are all still alive…

Mike Sokol
Mike Sokol

The reason for following the code is to keep everyone as safe as possible around electricity. And the latest revisions of code have added new technologies such as GFCI and AFCI protection, which really saves lives. But yes, I’ve seen some really crazy wiring that’s extremely dangerous.

Phil Smith
Phil Smith

When I was working with an electrician after getting out of the USMC, I was taught to flip receptacles that were half-switched (operated by a wall switch for a lamp). We split the receptacle so the top was switched and the bottom was always hot.

Brendan James Walsh
Brendan James Walsh

Another amazing story. Thank Mike for clearing that up! We’ve all seen these outlets and thought, “why’d they do that?” Now we know!

Mike Sokol

You’re welcome. There’s tons of crazy stuff like this in power distribution. You should see the new tabletop demonstration I’ve just built which allows me to generate 3-phase power in 120/208/240-volt Delta, High-Leg Delta, Grounded-Leg Delta, and 4-wire WYE configurations. I just used this in a class of hard-core Audio/Video/Lighting technicians and it really helped clear up a lot of confusion when hooking up power for large concert systems. While this is a bit over the top for most RV owners and probably many RV technicians, it’s right on point for anyone installing RV campground power, so maybe I’ll bring… Read more »

Thomas Becher
Thomas Becher

My wife worked at a video conference center and during an important meeting a metal plate which has lost a screw slipped down,shorted out and left everyone in the dark. After hours so no maintenance man to reset the breaker. Had to call in someone( 4 hours call time) meeting shot. Next day ALL outlets were changed ground up

Mike Sokol

Yup, that’s the scenario.

Walt
Walt

Very interesting article and I have to admit that this has never occurred to me. Next time I am sitting in the exam room waiting for my doctor, I will be pondering the ground orientations to help pass the time. Thanks

Mike Sokol

I do what I can to help you pass the time. Thanks….

Dale
Dale

Mike. Willow wind rv in hurricane Utah has 50 amp plugs upside down. I asked them to move me and I was invited to leave the park. So I rigged a stick by tying it to the box and tying my surge protector upside down to the stick.

Mike Sokol

Good save on your part, but a bit crazy that you have to do it at all since virtually EVERY RV shore power plug and surge protector I’ve ever seen has its ground pin oriented at the top so it will hang down properly from an outlet with its own ground pin at the top.

Tommy Molnar
Tommy Molnar

I found this discussion about ground up or down interesting. I know virtually nothing about electrical wiring, other than plugging stuff in and turning it on. But, for a few home projects, I bought the “Black & Decker Complete Guide to Home Wiring”. Copyright 2005. I perused the entire 300+ pages of well documented (as in lots of clear, color pictures showing how to do everything) installation instructions, and in every case, the receptacles show the ground at the bottom of the plug. No explanation as to why this is. Just all the pictures showing it that way.

Mike Sokol

This top/bottom ground-pin topic has been debated for the last few decades that I can remember. As I said, the latest revision of the NEC doesn’t select one or the other, but I’ll look even more closely to confirm. However, I do think that latest NFPA 1194 code book on campground power does require ground-up for the 30 and 50-amp outlets. And, of course, the 20-amp outlets (called receptacles in the book) do require GFCI protection. If any of you want to play along, there’s a free public access version of NFPA 1194 you can check over. It’s only online… Read more »

Tommy Molnar
Tommy Molnar

Mike, about 15 years ago I had three 30 amp RV plugs installed around our house for use by visitors and us. I went out yesterday to have a look at them. Low and behold, they’re all ground at the top. I know that when I go to stick a plug in, but just never really paid attention. Duh.

Wolfe

I learned “Ground up” back in the 80s, the excuse being dropping paperclips off the back of a desk where plugs are always half unplugged and unseen. Shrug. I’ll agree a hair safer at times, but all my grounded wall-warty things want the other way, and “peel themselves” off outlets in very UNsafe cantilever ways. I intentionally have both directions in any doublegangs in my shop and office just to have both options handy, but the combos look odd to casual observers.

Captn John
Captn John

Last year Mark suggested a product that cleaned and lubed electrical connections. Sadly, my can was left at a CG. Anyone know the name of that product?

Mike Sokol

Are you talking about DeoxIT?

Booneyrat
Booneyrat

And just where did you hear about de-oxit?

Mike Sokol

IIRC this is where I first wrote about DeoxIT for the RV industry: https://www.rvtravel.com/rvdt990/

Captn John
Captn John

Seems just different packaging, different color of can. Ordered today. Thank you.

Captn John
Captn John

No, the product came in a white can. It was both a cleaner and lube. I ordered it immediately after you suggested it and it worked great. Sadly, I left it on a pedestal in GA.

Mike Sokol

I’ll have to look though my past articles to remember the brand. So was this a pressure spray can? If so, I’ll take a look in the morning.

Mike Sokol

Here’s the article where I reference the contact cleaner your talking about (I think) from MG Chemicals. https://www.rvtravel.com/grease-on-trailer-plugs/

John Koenig
John Koenig

I took “Trade Electric” Level 1 & 2 in 1999 (I was the only homeowner in the class. Everyone else were apprentice electricians and, at least EIGHT apprentices dropped out forfeiting the $500 class fee!). I clearly remember, in the text book that the author opined, in the next NEC update, the NEC would require the grounding pin to be in the 12 O’Clock or 9 O’Clock position as those positions were slightly safer than 6 or 3 O’Clock positions. I came up with the mnemonic “Safety is LEFT UP to the installer; some installers are DOWN RIGHT dangerous” when… Read more »

Mike Sokol

The code books specifically for RV camper and campground wiring are separate from NFPA 70 and 70E, being NFPA 1192 and 1194 IIRC. I have copies of all the latest versions of the code for reference, along with training guides for a Master Electricians License. That’s a few thousand pages of very tiny writing (yikes!!), but everything I’ve read still puts the ground position determined by local codes. I’ll do some more studying next week just for grins, but it sure can get confusing.

mike henrich
mike henrich

I actually haven’t seen any local inspectors require one way or the other, yet. In fact, one builder puts all his receptacles ground down, except for the switched receptacles, the go ground up, to help the homeowner find the switched outlet.

John harpel

When I was building condos and patio homes in Denver it was a common practice to install outlets with the ground up on outlets that were connected to a wall switch. That way a lamp could be plugged in and turned on with the switch.

Warmonk
Warmonk

I don’t get it. Why does the switch care? How does the switch know?

Mike Sokol

The outlet doesn’t know or care, it’s just a visual aid for you to know that the electrician wired it into a wall switch so you can turn a floor lamp on and off from the wall. So in this case all “ground down” outlets would be full power all the time, while any “ground up” outlets you see were intentionally wired by the electrician to have wall switch power on the top half of the outlet. The bottom half of a switched outlet is generally (always?) powered on all the time. Make sense?

Warmonk
Warmonk

Doesn’t make sense to me. I understand it but I wouldn’t do it. Suppose I had a flat (wall-hugging) plug to put into that same duplex using the always-on outlet. Now it’s upside down. Suppose I turn the outlet over so that plug can hang properly. Now it’s over top of the switched outlet – probably blocking it – and the switched outlet is on the bottom – not normal. Frankly, I’d rather have it right-side up (ground down) with switched outlet on the top and always-on on the bottom. For sure it has never taken me very long to… Read more »

Warmonk
Warmonk

I may have reversed the hot and cold when describing them – point remains that UK and Newfoundland have a different normal.

All of our faucets now are single-lever. Kitchen is hot to the front cold to the back and bathroom is cold to the front hot to the back. Ours are forward and back – other single levers are side to side. Hadn’t really noticed that kitchen and bathroom were different until this thread. I guess you can learn something even on a Saturday morning.

Haven’t decided which one to change.

jamesham
jamesham

When I moved to the South (Mississippi) from the Midwest, I saw most of the newer plugs were installed “ground up” in homes, and commercial buildings. I also heard the story about metal bar shorting the hot and neutral prongs, but it was not attributed to California. I just assumed “Bubba” started installing them upside down by accident and the rest of the good old southern boys did not want to tell him of his error.

Dick Hime
Dick Hime

Mike, I found that to be an interesting article. I have seen hotel/motel outlets with the “ground up” and questioned it since by far the majority of residential outlets I’ve ever seen were “ground down”. This answers a question for which I didn’t think there a legitimate answer… just speculation. Thanks for scratching an itch it didn’t know I had!

steve roland
steve roland

When I wired my house in 1999 (Texas) I bought a book called “Wiring a House”. It was full of great info and when it came to the 15A plug ground orientation it said ground up for the very reason you cited. Made sense to me so I wired ground up on all plugs. Sometimes I cuss my decision.